The Druid Zodiac

[Disclaimer: while I am a linguist, I am not an expert on Celtic languages (ancient or modern), and I cannot vouch for the translations offered below. Most of the information in this article comes from the book The Lost Zodiac of the Druids by Gregory Clouter, and it should be noted that the views and translations in the book are not those entertained by most scholars.]

That the ancient druids practiced astronomy and astrology is beyond doubt. It would be amazing if they did not, since practically all ancient cultures did. But beyond that, their astronomical knowledge is specifically cited by many of the Roman, Greek and Irish authors that describe them; and there are even a few archaeological finds that suggest it.

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Primary among these is the Coligny calendar, discovered as little more than a pile of bronze fragments in 1897 — most likely smashed by Roman authorities during the suppression of druidic practice — and painstakingly restored piece by piece. Less than half of the calendar remains, but there is enough to clearly see a beautiful time-keeping system that aligned the sun and moon into a single calendar, and listed dozens of holidays, rituals, celebrations, and the like.

But if Gregory Clouter (The Lost Zodiac of the Druids, 2003) is right, the Gundestrup Cauldron puts the Coligny calendar to shame.

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On Emotional Violence

This article is a sequel to On Physical Violence, and carries forward a lot of its themes.  However, I think a lot of the issues around emotional violence are less clear cut, and so the intent of this article is much more speculative and investigative.

What is Emotional Violence?

Some examples of emotional violence are:

  • making threats
  • trying to incite feelings of guilt or inadequacy
  • constant non-constructive criticism
  • isolation
  • intentional public embarrassment

ire430cWhat do these actions have in common?  They are intentional, and they are an attempt to elicit an emotion; and furthermore, the emotion is an unpleasant one.

However, I don’t think the unpleasantness of the emotion is the defining characteristic here.  If you’re in a bad mood, and some horribly cheerful person comes up to you and tries to cheer you up, I think this falls under emotional violence as well — not as severe, certainly, but nevertheless unwelcome.  I suggest that emotional violence be defined as intentional elicitation of undesired emotion.

In other words, emotional violence is what is commonly called emotional manipulation, but with the addendum that the manipulation be toward emotions that are not wanted by the victim.

Does this correspond in any way to physical violence?

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